Tone: the writer's attitude toward the material and/or readers.

Pessimism - the tendency to see the worst aspect of things or to believe that the worst will happen.

Example: Eeyore from Winnie the Pooh is a great example of a pessimist because he always believed that the worst was going to happen.

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Optimism - the opposite of pessimism, hopefulness for the future or the successful outcome of something.

Bitterness- a tone characterized by intense antagonism of hostility.

Example: Holden in J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. In a bitter tone Holden says "People never notice anything."

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Earnestness- a tone of serious in intention and effort, or showing depth and sincerity.

Example: Having an earnest talk with his son. meaning he needs to talk to his son about something very important and serious.

Seriousness- a tone that is characterized in deep thought, being earnest, or humorlessness

Example: The Titantic and The Godfather are some movies that are serious.

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Humorous- a type of tone that is funny or comical.

Example: Bartimaues shows an example of this when he says, “One magician demanded I show him an image of the love of his life. I rustled up a mirror" in Jonathan Stroud's The Amulet of Samarkand.


Verbal irony is irony where a person says one thing and means another or uses words to convey a meaning that is opposite of the literal meaning.

Example: One very popular type of verbal irony is sarcasm.

Dramatic Irony - inherent in speeches or a situation of drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.The reader knows more than the characters do.

Example: In horror movies, the scene when you know someone is going to die, but they don't know it yet. The audience knows that the bad guy is in the house, or in the closet, but they go in anyways. Like Friday the Thirteenth and Scream, or any other scary movie.

Situational Irony - occurs when actions have the opposite of the intended effect.

Example: In Romeo and Juliet Romeo attempts to solve the conflict between Mercutio and Tybalt, but ends up in making the war between the families even worse.